Margo microservice template (C)
The Margo microservice template is available here. Though this project provides many examples of how to use the Margo API, you may want to refer to the Margo documentation for more detail.
The Mochi philosophy
The philosophy of the Mochi project consists of providing a set of building blocks for developing HPC data service. Each building block is meant to offer efficient, location-agnostic access to a simple set of functionalities through modular backends, while seamlessly sharing hardware (compute and network) with other building blocks.
A simple set of functionalities may be, for example, “storing and retrieving small key/value pairs”, a common feature found in many storage systems to manage metadata. The location-agnostic aspect aims at making such a feature available to user programs in the same manner and through the same API regardless of whether the service runs in the same process, on the same node but on different processes, or on a different node across a network. The modular backends aspect makes it possible to abstract the implementation of such a feature and, if not providing multiple implementations, at least providing the means for someone to easily swap the default implementation of the feature for their own. Because multiple building blocks may be running on the same node, such a building block should efficiently share the compute and network hardware with other building blocks. This is done by sharing a common networking and threading layer: Margo.
The typical design of a Mochi microservice revolves around four libraries: server, client, admin, and bedrock module.
The server library contains a service provider, that is, an object that can receive some predefined RPCs to offer a particular functionality. Within the same process, multiple providers of the same service may be instantiated, using distinct provider ids (uint16_t). A provider is responsible for managing a set of resources. In the example of a storage for key/value pairs, a resource may be a database. The functionalities of a provider may be enabled by multiple backends. For example, a database may be implemented using LevelDB, BerkeleyDB, or simply using an in-memory hash table. Programs sending requests to a provider should not be aware of the backend used to implement the requested functionality. This allows multiple backends to be tested, and for backends to evolve independently from user applications.
The client library is the library through which user applications or higher-level services interact with providers. It will typically provide a client structure that is used to register the set of RPCs that can be invoked, and a resource handle structure that references a particular resource located on a particular provider. User applications will typically initialize a singe client object for a service, and from this client object instantiate as many resource handles as needed to interact with available resources. Resources are identified by a resource id, which are generally either a name, an integer, or a uuid (this template project uses uuids).
The admin library is the library through which a user application can send requests that are meant for the provider itself rather than for a resource. A few most common such requests include the creation and destruction of resources, their migration, etc. It can be useful to think of the admin library as the set of features you would want to provide to the person or application that sets up the service, rather than the person or application that uses its functionalities.
The bedrock module library enables using your component with Bedrock. It is implemented in src/bedrock-module.c.
Organization of the template project
The template project illustrates how a Margo-based microservice could be architected. It can be compiled as-is, and provides a couple of functionalities that make the provider print a “Hello World” message on its standard output, or compute the sum of two integers.
This template project uses alpha as the name of your microservice. Functions, types, files, and libraries therefore use the alpha prefix. The first step in setting up this project for your microservice will be to replace this prefix. The generic name resource should also be replaced with a more specific name, such as database. This renaming step is done automatically when using the template on github (see the next section). You don’t have to rename everything by yourself!
The include directory of this template project provides public header files.
alpha/alpha-common.h contains APIs that are common to the three libraries, such as error codes or common types;
alpha/alpha-client.h contains the client-side functions to create and destroy a client object;
alpha/alpha-resource.h contains the client-side functions to create and destroy resource handles, and to interact with a resource through a resource handle;
alpha/alpha-server.h contains functions to register and destroy a provider;
alpha/alpha-backend.h contains the definition of a structure that one would need to implement in order to provide a new backend for your microservice;
alpha/alpha-admin.h contains the functions to create and destroy an admin object, as well as admin functions to interact with a provider;
alpha/alpha-provider-handle.h contains the definition of a provider handle. This type of construct is often used in Mochi services to encapsulate an address and a provider id.
The implementation of all these functions is located in the src directory. The source also includes functionalities such as a small header-based logging library. The src/dummy directory provides a default implementation of a backend. This backend also exemplifies the use of the json-c library for JSON-based resource configuration. We recommend that you implement a dummy backend for your service, as a way of testing application logic and RPCs without the burden of complex external dependencies. For instance, a dummy backend may be a backend that simply acknowledges requests but does not process them, or provides mock results.
The examples directory contains an example using the microservice: the server example will start a provider and print its address (if logging was enabled). The admin example will connect to this provider and have it create a resource, then print the resource id. The client example can be run next to interact with the resource.
The tests directory contains a set of unit tests for your service. It relies on µnit (included in the repository), a C unit-test library under an MIT license. Feel free to continue using it as you add more functionalities to your microservice; unit-testing is just good software development practice in general.
The template also contains a spack.yaml file at its root that can be used to install its dependencies. You may add additional dependencies into this file as your microservice gets more complex.
As you modify this project to implement your own microservice, feel free to remove any dependencies you don’t like (such as json-c or µnit) and adapt it to your needs!
Setting up your project
Let’s assume you want to create a microservice called “yellow”, which manages a phone directory (association between names and phone numbers). The following shows how to setup your project:
First, go to template repository on github and click “Use this template”. Give it the name “yellow”, and proceed.
Before the next step, go to your new repository’s Settings, then Actions, General, and allow write permissions for workflows.
Edit the initial-setup.json file to rename your service and your resources (e.g. rename “alpha” into “yellow” and “resource” into “phonebook”).
These names must be lower-case and without spaces, since they will be used in C code for identifiers, function names, etc.
Editing initial-setup.json will trigger a github action. Wait a couple of minutes and you should see a new commit appear: github has renamed your files, functions, etc. by itself! It has also removed the COPYRIGHT file and the initial-setup.json file.
Your repo is now ready to use!
Building the project
The project’s dependencies may be build using spack. You will need to have setup mochi-spack-packages as external namespace for spack, which can be done as follows.
# from outside of your project directory git clone https://github.com/mochi-hpc/mochi-spack-packages.git spack repo add mochi-spack-packages
The easiest way to setup the dependencies for this project is to create a spack environment using the spack.yaml file located at the root of the project, as follows.
# create an anonymous environment cd my_project spack env activate . spack install
or as follows.
# create an environment named myenv cd my_project spack env create myenv spack.yaml spack env activate myenv spack install
Once the dependencies have been installed, you may build the project as follows.
mkdir build cd build cmake .. -DENABLE_TESTS=ON -DENABLE_EXAMPLES=ON -DENABLE_BEDROCK=ON make
You can test the project using
make test from the build directory.